Impact of smoking on Galectin-3 and GDF-15 among pregnant women


  • Ahmad Al-Rweis Mastered at Faculty of medical Allied sciences, Al-Ahliyya Amman university, Amman, Jordan
  • Zainab zakaraya Assistant professore biopharmaceutics and clinical pharmacy department, faculty of pharmacy, Al-Ahliyya Amman University
  • Laila Al-Omari Department of Laboratory Medical Sciences, Al-Ahliyya Amman University. Amman, Jordan
  • Khaled Abdul-Aziz Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, Al-Ahliyya Amman Univesity, Amman



pregnancy, Galectin-3 , GDF-15 , biomarkers , haemoglobin , LDL , C-reactive protein


In order to shed an understanding of the complicated mechanisms behind the health implications of tobacco use during pregnancy, this study examines the complex interplay between smoking and pregnancy on the levels of the biomarkers Galectin-3 and GDF-15, and to provide a comprehensive analysis, facilitating a deeper understanding and offering potential pathways for targeted interventions to mitigate health risks. Pregnant smokers had higher levels of hemoglobin and white blood cell counts, while both pregnant groups had lower platelet counts. Additionally, pregnant smokers had higher levels of total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, liver enzymes (ALT and AST), and C-reactive protein. These significant changes in hematological and metabolic parameters were found in a cross-sectional analysis involving 90 female participants who were divided into three groups: pregnant smokers, pregnant non-smokers, and non-pregnant non-smokers. Although there were slight variations in the levels of GDF-15 and Galectin-3 between the groups, they did not reach statistical significance. These results highlight the extensive and harmful metabolic alterations brought on by smoking during pregnancy, highlighting the need for focused actions to protect the health of both the mother and the fetus even in the face of largely stable biomarker levels.




How to Cite

Al-Rweis, A., zakaraya, Z., Al-Omari, L., & Abdul-Aziz , K. (2024). Impact of smoking on Galectin-3 and GDF-15 among pregnant women. Tamjeed Journal of Healthcare Engineering and Science Technology, 2(1), 1–12.